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The Science of Gut Sensory Modulation (GSM)

The Science of Gut Sensory Modulation (GSM)

GSM is an emerging science, discovered by scientists who observed and studied hormonal changes that occur following gastric bypass surgery, specifically, higher levels of the hormones GLP-1 and PYY. These hormones, released by intestinal L-cells, act as satiety signals to the brain. GSM targets L-cells in the lower gut with natural ingredients to produce a wide range of beneficial effects.

Bariatric surgery which results in satiety, weight loss, and amelioration of type 2 diabetes, also dramatically enhances gut hormone secretion. This hormone enhancement is a result of delivering nutrients to the lower bowel a region of the gut where hormone secreting L-cells are most abundant. Gut hormones are known to mediate many of the beneficial effects of gastric bypass surgery.

Additionally, new evidence suggests that nutrient-driven gut hormone secretion can be augmented by non-nutritive agonists to nutrient chemosensory (taste) receptors located in the intestine. Taste receptors are chemosensory receptors that transmit and convey the perception of taste for bitter, sweet, umami, salt and sour. The same taste receptors located on the tongue also exist in other organs including the lung and gut epithelium. Targeting intestinal taste receptors on L cells with non-nutritive agonists to augment meal-driven gut hormone secretion is a novel approach to manage bodyweight. Taste receptor agonists can exert biological and pharmacologic actions without being absorbed into the bloodstream, thus reducing the potential for off-target side-effects. This more natural approach to the management of healthy bodyweight represents an attractive opportunity for continuing research.

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Beach Season and Covid-19

Beach Season and COVID-19

(Contributed by Linda Anegawa, MD, FACP anegawa-md.com )

Summer is in full swing, and for many of us, a beach trip is a family tradition. But how should we proceed in these uncertain times?

1. Is it safe to go to the beach at all?

Currently, the word “safe” must be used as a relative term. We are dealing with a novel Coronavirus and limited testing – so other than staying home 100% of the time and having no contact with outsiders, there isn’t any way to determine if any activity is truly “safe.” Having said that, by taking precautions, any activity can be made “safer” when it comes to the risk of contracting viral infection. You are also probably safer from the virus when outdoors in the sunlight (where it is thought that the virus may die quickly) vs. in a closed environment such as a restaurant or theatre.

2. What are the risks?

The risks of going to the beach include the presence of large crowds which impact your ability to social distance, people shouting or yelling which can theoretically spread more virus particles in the air than vs. normal talking, having to use public restrooms with lots of high-touch surfaces which can harbor the virus, or lying in sand where someone may have sneezed or coughed.

3. How can I prepare, should I decide to go?

• Read up on your local area’s cautions and restrictions before you go. Some counties have strict rules on the number of people who are allowed on the beach, what you can bring, and there could be time restrictions, too.

• Keep your beach visit activity-focused… go for a walk, swim, or a paddle. When you are moving and far from others, your risk of catching the virus is lower. Plus, you’ll get in some exercise which is critical for mood, stress, and sleep, and can help lower inflammation.

• Social distancing remains the mainstay of preparation. Your likelihood of viral infection is dependent on the amount of virus in the air or on surfaces + duration of contact, so this is key. Try to find the least crowded area that you can. Avoid areas where it looks like there are large parties or other gatherings.

• It’s ideal to continue wearing a mask at all times unless in the water.

• Avoid public chairs or benches. Bring your own beach chairs and equipment. Bring plenty of hand sanitizer or wipes in case you need to use a public rest room.

• Avoid setting food and beverages directly in the sand. Bring a folding table with you or a large blanket. And of course, to maximize your metabolic health, be sure to bring healthy low-carb snacks to fuel your body such as small packets of nuts and dried seeds, hard boiled eggs and cut veggies.

• When you get home, wash everything in hot water with detergent and dry in the dryer.

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Magnesium: A Mineral that Matters

Magnesium: A Mineral that Matters

(contributed by Linda Anegawa, MD, FACP)

You may know magnesium as a mineral that is important for the function of all our muscles:  low magnesium levels may cause painful cramps in our arms and legs, particularly after we’ve done very intense exercise.  Magnesium is also critical for the function of our heart muscle, and when our levels get too low, serious arrhythmias may result. 

Magnesium is also critical for over 300 other metabolic and enzymatic reactions in the body.   In particular, the relationship of magnesium to blood sugar levels is an area of active study.  As a part of glucose metabolism, magnesium drives many of the reactions in the process of breaking down blood sugar.  

Magnesium deficiency is known to aggravate insulin resistance, because without magnesium, more insulin is required to metabolize blood sugar.  The pancreas pumps out more insulin, driving fat storage and increased hunger, leading to increased food intake.   When an individual is insulin resistant to begin with, the presence of low magnesium levels can feed an ongoing vicious cycle of worsening insulin resistance.

Some smaller studies have shown that giving individuals who are insulin resistant magnesium supplements improves insulin sensitivity and improves blood sugar control.  Whether magnesium can outright prevent diabetes or cause weight loss on its own is not completely clear.  While they don’t quite recommend supplements to prevent diabetes, the American Diabetes Association recommends that people with diabetes consume increased quantities of magnesium-rich foods.  These include vegetables and legumes, for example.

If you eat a lower carb or ketogenic diet, you may experience increased urination which means that you will lose extra water-soluble minerals including Magnesium.  So, remember the importance of this vital mineral.  You’ll be doing your muscles and your heart a favor, and maybe even put a damper on the cycle of metabolic syndrome that previously blocked your weight loss efforts.